A team of scientists from Spain analyzed the association of Mediterranean dietary patterns with prostate cancer risk.

In conducting the study, the research team used the data from the Multicase-Control Study on Common Tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain), which gathered dietary information on 754 confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 1,277 individuals between the age of 38 and 85 years. The MCC-Spain is a population study carried out by different universities, hospitals, and health institutes in Spain.

The research team categorized the participants into three groups according to which dietary pattern their eating habits are most similar to. The dietary patterns included Western, prudent, and Mediterranean — the most common dietary patterns in Spain.

The Mediterranean dietary pattern is rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and olive oil, while the Western diet is composed of refined grains, processed meat, sodas, sweets, fast food, and sauces. Meanwhile, the prudent dietary pattern is characterized by low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and juices.

The findings of the study, which were published in the Journal of Urology, revealed that men who highly adhered to a Mediterranean diet are less likely to develop prostate cancer with aggressive and extensive tumors compared to those who followed the two other dietary patterns. On the other hand, no such link was found in the Western and prudent dietary patterns.

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