In a pilot study, researchers assessed the risk for atherosclerosis in 20 adults withceliac disease, at diagnosis and after 6 to 8 months of a gluten-free diet with mucosal recovery. Evaluated factors included total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), folate, vitamin B12, triglycerides and homocysteine. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) also were measured via ultrasound at both time points and compared with measurements obtained from 22 matched healthy controls.
Patients had normal HDL and total cholesterol levels at baseline, while LDL levels were slightly elevated. Total and HDL cholesterol levels increased among patients after gluten abstinence (185.4 ± 37.77 mg/dL vs. 204.42 ± 35.2 mg/dL; P<.003 for total and 51.4 ± 18.6 mg/dL vs. 68.2 ± 17.4 mg/dL;P<.001 for HDL), with a decrease in total/HDL cholesterol ratio (3.77 ± 0.92 vs. 3.05 ± 0.71; P<.02). LDL concentrations did not significantly change within the cohort.
Mean levels of CRP decreased after gluten abstinence (1.073 ± 0.51 mg/dL vs. 1.92 ± 1.38 at baseline; P<.05). Plasma homocysteine levels, elevated among participants at baseline; triglycerides, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not significantly impacted by gluten abstinence.